Endometriosis is a long-term condition in which endometrial tissue that is meant to grow along the uterine lining goes rogue and ends up growing in places outside the uterus (for example, on your ovaries). This tissue can become inflamed, which leads to pain and bleeding. Read more
Adenomyosis is similar to endometriosis with one main difference: instead of endometrial tissue growing outside the uterus, in adenomyosis, it grows into the muscles of the uterus.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and endometriosis have overlapping symptoms so the two conditions can mimic each other. IBS symptoms, such as cramping, often flare up during your period.
Fibroids are noncancerous growths that develop inside and around the uterus. They can cause severe cramps, sharp stabbing sensations in your tummy and back aches. Read more
Infections such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can cause inflammation of your reproductive organs, resulting in pelvic cramping and pain.
Adhesions are scar tissue from previous surgery. Scarring can lead to attachments in and around your pelvic organs, causing pain that can increase during your period.
Gynaecological cancers, while rare, can lead to changes in your normal periods such as unusual cramping and pain, depending on the size and location of the cancer.